List of Genetically Engineered Tree Species and Transgenic Hybrids

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List of Genetically Engineered Tree Species and Transgenic Hybrids

A preliminary list of G.E. tree R&D efforts reveals that hundreds of field trials, notifications and genetic engineering laboratory efforts are under way around the world to commercially develop G.E. trees for large scale monocultured plantations, food crops, ornamental trees, essential oils, biopharmaceutical crops, reforestation of endangered trees like the American chestnut, soil erosion protection in places like China, toxic hot spot soil remediation, and a variety of other uses.

The hundreds of field trials involve thousands and thousands of G.E. tree saplings, although not all the G.E. tree outdoor field trials are listed here just a sampling. It's apparent that the R&D on G.E. trees is exploding around the world especially in 2003-2004 with more than sixty species and hybrids being genetically engineered. In fact USDA/APHIS officials publicly stated at a recent G.E. Forest and Fruit Trees meeting in Riverdale, Maryland (July 8-9, 2003) that there were approximately fifty G.E. tree species undergoing field trials in the U.S.A. alone.

As of March 2005 there are 131 current active field trials of GE trees in the US. At least twelve of those field trials are here in Oregon, 7 from Oregon State University on Poplar species and 5 from Agritope (parent company: Exelixis [ NASDAQ EXEL]) in Tualatin on Apple and Pear species.

G.E. tree traits:
Faster Growth;
Herbicide Tolerance;
Sterility (Terminator);
Reduced Lignin Biosynthesis;
Resistance to Pests: Insects and Fungal & Viral Diseases;
Improvements to Fiber/Product Uniformity;
Genetic Markers;
Toxic absorption from the soil; and more.

* Wood/paper/pulp GE tree species and transgenic hybrids - 34 species and dozens of field trials
* Fruit/nut/oil/coffee GE tree species and transgenic hybrids - 25 species and dozens of field trials
* Ornamental GE tree species - 1 Eastern North American Rhododendron
* Reforestation GE tree species - 2 North American Chestnut and Elm
* Soil erosion protection - 1 G.E. poplar plantation in China.
* Essential oil GE tree species - 1 Indonesian Sandalwood
* Toxic hot spot soil remediation such as mercury pollution - poplar species being tested
* Biopharmaceutical GE tree species - 1 tropical rubber tree species

Common name - Botanical name - Year of release for first field trials

1. GE European Aspen - Populus tremula - 1988
2. GE North American Black Walnut (nut) - Juglans nigra - 1989
3. GE Hawaiian Papaya (fruit) - Carica papaya - 1991 and later approved for commercial crop planting in Hawaii
4. GE North American Apple (fruit) - Malus domestica - 1991
5. GE European Sweet Chestnut - Castanea sativa - 1992
6. GE North American Plum (fruit) - Prunus domestica - 1992
7. GE Red River Gum - Eucalyptus camaldulensis - 1993
8. GE North American Black Spruce (conifer) - Picea mariana - 1993
9. GE North American Sweetgum - Liquidambar styraciflua - 1994
10. GE Plum (fruit) - Prunus domestica - 1994
11. GE Apricot (fruit) - Prunus armenica - 1994
12. GE Hardy Orange (fruit) - Poncirus trifoliata - 1994
13. GE Sweet Orange (fruit) - Citrus sinensis - 1995
14. GE European Black Poplar - Populus nigra - 1994 field trials; 1998 large scale plantation release in China.
15. GE Gray Sheoak tree - Casuarina glauca - 1996
16. GE North American Silver Birch - Betula pendula - 1996
17. GE North American Chestnut - Castanea dentata - 1996
18. GE Sweet Orange (fruit) - Citrus sinensis - 1996
19. GE Tasmanian Blue Gum - Eucalyptus globulus - 1996
20. GE Norway Spruce (conifer) - Picea abies - 1996
21. GE North American Scots Pine (conifer) - Pinus sylvestris - 1996
22. GE Tropical Acacia - Acacia species - 1997
23. GE Western North American Monterey Pine (conifer) - Pinus radiata - 1997
24. GE Teak - Tectona grandis - 1997
25. GE Lime (fruit) - Citrus aurantifolia - 1997
26. GE Sour Orange (fruit) - Citrus aurantium - 1997
27. GE Pummelo (fruit) - Citrus grandis - 1997 6 field trials
28. GE Casuarina tree - Allocasuarina verticiliata - 1997
29. GE Flooded Gum - Eucalyptus grandis - 1998
30. GE Italian Olive (fruit) - Olea europea - 1998
31. GE Eastern North American Cottonwood - Populus deltoides - 1998
32. GE North American Quaking Aspen - Populus tremuloides - 1998
33. GE North American Cherry (fruit) - Prunus avium - 1998
34. GE Tropical Avocado (fruit) - Persea species - 1 field trial
35. GE South American Coffee (bean) - Coffea arabica - 3 field trials
36. GE Grapefruit (fruit) - Citrus paradisi hybrid (C. maximum x C. sinensis) - 6 field trials
37. GE North American Pear (fruit) - Pyrus communis - 5 field trials
38. GE Persimmon (fruit) - Diospyros species - 4 field trials
39. GE North American Walnut (nut) - Juglans species - 13 field trials
40. GE Southeastern North American Loblolly Pine (conifer) - Pinus taeda - field trials
41. GE Western North American Douglas fir (conifer) - Pseudotsuga menziesii - future field trials
42. GE English Elm - Ulmus species - field trials
43. GE New Zealand Kiwi fruit tree (fruit) - Actinidia chinensis - 1999 - 4 field trials
44. GE Chinese White Poplar - Populus tomentosa - 1999 China
45. GE Tropical Banana (fruit) - Musa acuminata - 2000 - 5 field trials
46. GE-pharmaceutical Indonesian Rubber tree - blood clotting factor - Hevea brasiliensis - 2000
47. GE Eastern North American Rhododendron - Rhododendron species - 2000 -
48. GE North American Cottonwood Hybrid - Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides - 2001
49. GE North American Cottonwood Hybrid - Populus trichocarpa x P. nigra - 2001
50. GE North American Cottonwood Hybrid - Populus deltoides x P. nigra - 2001
51. GE North American Cottonwood Hybrid - Populus simonii x P. nigra - 2001
52. GE Chinese Larch/Tamarack (conifer) - Larix species (L. decidua, L. sibirica) - China
53. GE Chinese Empress (Supa) trees - Paulownia species (P. tomentosa, P. fortunei)
54. GE Persian Walnut (nut) - Juglans regia - field trials
55. GE Chinese Poplar hybrid 741 - Populus alba x P. davidiana x P. simonii x P. tomentosa - 2001 China
56. GE Western Australia Eucalyptus - Eucalyptus occidentalis - 2002
57. GE Brazilian Eucalyptus hybrids - Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla - 2002
58. GE Chinese Birch - Betula platyphylla - China
59. GE Indonesian Sandalwood (essential oils) - Santalum album -
60. GE North American Beech - Fagus sylvatica -
61. GE Mandarin Orange (fruit) - Citrus reticulata - 2002
62. GE Poplar/Quaking Aspen hybrids - Populus tremula x P. tremuloides - 2004
63. GE North American Elm - Ulmus americana - 2004